The Roman Legion was equaled by the Phalanx and infantry battles in Heraclea and Asculum were stalemates until Phyurss flanked them. Trivia Quiz - Roman Legion vs. Macedonian Phalanx Category: Ancient Wars Quiz #348,508. Despite this, the Eastern Roman/Byzantine armies continued to be influenced by the earlier Roman legions, and were maintained with similar levels of discipline, strategic prowess, and organization. Initially adopting a hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, the army eventually transformed into the flexible manipular legion. At the end of the 2nd century BC, Gaius Marius reformed the previously ephemeral legions as a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and providing employment for jobless citizens of the city of Rome. At Heraclea and Asculum the tried and true Macedonian phalanx faced the Roman maniple that had only been established 40-100 years before. Problem is that phalanx is a formation, 'legion' is a unit..it's like comparing apples to elephants. It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. The two formations actually met in battle a handful of times with varied results. How was a Roman legion different from a Greek phalanx? By the 1st century BC, the threat of the legions under a demagogue was recognized. Carthaginians' quinquereme), as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers (Parthians and Numidians). As the long phalanx line pushed forward, they began to break formation as some areas pushed forward more than others and the uneven ground began to break the formation. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, and there were more of them. According to the late Roman writer Vegetius' De Re Militari, each century had a ballista and each cohort had an onager, giving the legion a formidable siege train of 59 Ballistae and 10 Onagers, each manned by 10 libritors (artillerymen) and mounted on wagons drawn by oxen or mules. The legions also became permanent at this time, and not recruited for particular campaigns. Although both implemented strong organization, they organized their soldiers in a different manner. This was later changed to nine cohorts of standard size (with six centuries at 80 men each) with the first cohort being of double strength (five double-strength centuries with 160 men each). The Roman infantry met the phalanx and did not break, but were steadily forced back towards the broken ground behind them. Historic Brexit deal reached » A hard Brexit was avoided ... Watch 8-metre whale washed up at Piraeus beach freed (video) » The mammal washed up at Freattida beach in Piraeus ... Brexit: How it will affect thousands of Greeks living and working in the UK » There are positives and negatives ... 15 Most powerful weapons in the World » The basic division of weapons would be into melee weapons, mechanical weapons, firearms, chemical, biological, nuclear & ... 66 Roman Army Campsites Identified in Spain. It’s easy to see where the “tortoise” formation got its name. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, which was founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt. The Roman order on the other hand is flexible: for every Roman, once armed and on the field, is equally well-equipped for every place, time, or appearance of the enemy. "Legion GmbH. Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them. There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum (commander of the camp) and other specialists such as priests and musicians. Spetzofai is a rustic spicy Greek dish that is made with thick sausages and long green and red peppers in a rich tomato sauce. However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than the State of Rome itself. pp. This transformation was likely a result of the Samnite wars fought in the varied mountainous terrain of central Italy where the Romans needed a more adaptable formation. Instead of signing up for specific lengths of time in the army, prospective soldiers now promised a certain nu… A legion was roughly of brigade size, composed of 4,200 infantry and 300 cavalry in the republican period, extended to 5,200 infantry and 120 auxilia in the imperial period. Roman military training focused on the more effective thrusting of the sword rather than the slash. See List of Roman legions of the early Empire This development ultimately enabled Julius Caesar to cross the Rubicon with an army loyal to him personally and effectively end the Republic. This battle shows the ingenuity and freedoms allowed to Roman officers to enable them to make a battlefield decision that profoundly influenced the outcome. The individual Roman had more room to operate, with a large shield and effective sword allowing them to confidently engage and defend individually and as a group by locking shields. A maniple consisted of two centuries and was commanded by the senior of the two centurions. All career soldiers could be promoted to the higher ranks in recognition of exceptional acts of bravery or valour. The maniple was fluid, with each maniple led by centurions who were encouraged to take initiative and lead by example. 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