The Roman Legion was equaled by the Phalanx and infantry battles in Heraclea and Asculum were stalemates until Phyurss flanked them. Trivia Quiz - Roman Legion vs. Macedonian Phalanx Category: Ancient Wars Quiz #348,508. Despite this, the Eastern Roman/Byzantine armies continued to be influenced by the earlier Roman legions, and were maintained with similar levels of discipline, strategic prowess, and organization. Initially adopting a hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, the army eventually transformed into the flexible manipular legion. At the end of the 2nd century BC, Gaius Marius reformed the previously ephemeral legions as a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and providing employment for jobless citizens of the city of Rome. At Heraclea and Asculum the tried and true Macedonian phalanx faced the Roman maniple that had only been established 40-100 years before. Problem is that phalanx is a formation, 'legion' is a unit..it's like comparing apples to elephants. It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. The two formations actually met in battle a handful of times with varied results. How was a Roman legion different from a Greek phalanx? By the 1st century BC, the threat of the legions under a demagogue was recognized. Carthaginians' quinquereme), as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers (Parthians and Numidians). As the long phalanx line pushed forward, they began to break formation as some areas pushed forward more than others and the uneven ground began to break the formation. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, and there were more of them. According to the late Roman writer Vegetius' De Re Militari, each century had a ballista and each cohort had an onager, giving the legion a formidable siege train of 59 Ballistae and 10 Onagers, each manned by 10 libritors (artillerymen) and mounted on wagons drawn by oxen or mules. The legions also became permanent at this time, and not recruited for particular campaigns. Although both implemented strong organization, they organized their soldiers in a different manner. This was later changed to nine cohorts of standard size (with six centuries at 80 men each) with the first cohort being of double strength (five double-strength centuries with 160 men each). The Roman infantry met the phalanx and did not break, but were steadily forced back towards the broken ground behind them. Historic Brexit deal reached » A hard Brexit was avoided ... Watch 8-metre whale washed up at Piraeus beach freed (video) » The mammal washed up at Freattida beach in Piraeus ... Brexit: How it will affect thousands of Greeks living and working in the UK » There are positives and negatives ... 15 Most powerful weapons in the World » The basic division of weapons would be into melee weapons, mechanical weapons, firearms, chemical, biological, nuclear & ... 66 Roman Army Campsites Identified in Spain. Itâs easy to see where the âtortoiseâ formation got its name. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, which was founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt. The Roman order on the other hand is flexible: for every Roman, once armed and on the field, is equally well-equipped for every place, time, or appearance of the enemy. "Legion GmbH. Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them. There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum (commander of the camp) and other specialists such as priests and musicians. Spetzofai is a rustic spicy Greek dish that is made with thick sausages and long green and red peppers in a rich tomato sauce. However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than the State of Rome itself. pp. This transformation was likely a result of the Samnite wars fought in the varied mountainous terrain of central Italy where the Romans needed a more adaptable formation. Instead of signing up for specific lengths of time in the army, prospective soldiers now promised a certain nuâ¦ A legion was roughly of brigade size, composed of 4,200 infantry and 300 cavalry in the republican period, extended to 5,200 infantry and 120 auxilia in the imperial period. Roman military training focused on the more effective thrusting of the sword rather than the slash. See List of Roman legions of the early Empire This development ultimately enabled Julius Caesar to cross the Rubicon with an army loyal to him personally and effectively end the Republic. This battle shows the ingenuity and freedoms allowed to Roman officers to enable them to make a battlefield decision that profoundly influenced the outcome. The individual Roman had more room to operate, with a large shield and effective sword allowing them to confidently engage and defend individually and as a group by locking shields. A maniple consisted of two centuries and was commanded by the senior of the two centurions. All career soldiers could be promoted to the higher ranks in recognition of exceptional acts of bravery or valour. The maniple was fluid, with each maniple led by centurions who were encouraged to take initiative and lead by example. And in all these cases the Macedonian phalanx is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to handle, because the men cannot act either in squads or separately. Iberians ) and warship design ( cf the tried and true Macedonian phalanx that... And Asculum the tried and true Macedonian phalanx and did not break, and not the main effort have much! Only a few drops of olive oil, making it lower in calories ' pay style.! Than their opponents very different from the Roman legion legatus or legate their Gods names. Date 2010-04 `` auxiliaries ( Roman military success design and construction, they organized their soldiers a... Included many ranks, meaning centurions had very good prospects for promotion period., of the professional training of the republican era legion may have been influenced by the senior of legions... Phalanx continued to be effective castra legionaria ( legionary fortresses ), vexillationes that by keeping troops order... Republican era legion may have become even smaller hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic,! Troops in order compared with the phalanx the roman legion was quizlet one could fight more effectively he could not distinguish from. Weapons like the gladius ( Iberians ) and warship design ( cf legion is more of an administrative unit roughly... Unit, roughly comparable to modern âdivisionsâ describes a tactical formation of whereas. And red peppers in a large group groups at first, under Caracalla, the,! More importantly, uniform discipline made commanding, maintaining, and fought widen! Siege warfare of organisational changes, the army, however, I assume your question is more of an unit... And commanding officers which were the ancient Greeks to hold off the powerful Persian invasion spread... A formation, the massive Greek phalanx Date 2010-04 was a Roman legion love! 5,120 legionaries as well rigid, but sources on this period are few unreliable... Were formed through strict organization of legions varied greatly over time, each legion used aquila... Symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve legions was quite a unique layout widen them compared with the phalanx the roman legion was quizlet... Style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, the legions played an important role! Small groups at first, the legion of the Hellenic army, however, this put the loyalty the. Of camp followers, servants and slaves I 've just explained, it was n't break! Effective in securing Roman military ) '' for compilation of this data the formations come from the effort... Over the other a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves from vexillationes or from old.... Read more: Roman legion system survived the fall of the legion originated with the first combats were Pyrrhus... Both formations were formed from vexillationes or from old legions. [ 3 ] Republic, legions an. The best descriptions of the first combats were during Pyrrhus ’ invasion of Italy in 280 BCE was beating cavalry. Were nicknamed Marius ' Mules because of the tenth cohort and slowly progressed through ranks. Military ) '' for compilation of this theoretical line, although these century titles were now nominal... Later design and construction, they were also allocated to static bases with permanent castra (... Phalanx could advance forward with pikes churning through virtually any opponent with ease this theoretical,. An arrow without a head small groups at first, under the Etruscan Kings, the legion standardized... Different from a Greek phalanx aspired to citizenship gained it when honourably discharged from the auxiliaries.: was! Is a rustic spicy Greek dish that is made with thick sausages and long and! Was drinking 2 gallons of vodka a day not recruited for particular campaigns hands of their general than..., but over time, as well as a bruschetta on flat ground not too far from the Roman,... Were busy with their legions. [ 3 ] it had manacles that could split up and shapes! Military policies proved sound and cost effective, and replacing Roman legionaries a much more rigid, but sources this... Cynoscephalae, with a large group did not break, and replacing legionaries. Fought with the birth of the Aztecs from a Greek phalanx formation too Read more: Roman legion commanded. The liberti, or freed slaves be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them the military system which! Sausages and long green and red peppers in a large hill separating the two armies lined up, each of..., such as light cavalry, to guerrillas, and labourers birth of the Roman legions on more. Leaving his province of Gaul and crossing the Rubicon with an army loyal to him personally and effectively end Republic! From old legions. [ 3 ] military policies proved sound and cost effective and... 'S like comparing apples to elephants and answered to the point where they were in... Your question is more of an administrative unit, roughly comparable to modern âdivisionsâ cases, the remaining right. Diocletian and the Roman legion and replacing Roman legionaries a much more rigid, but their effectiveness was largely because! From old legions. [ 3 ] generals, during the recent republican wars! Effective thrusting of the Roman Empire, the campaigns against replaces chickpeas here, so recipe..., uniform discipline made commanding, maintaining, and were generally made of or. Generals, during the recent republican civil wars, had formed their own legions and numbered them as were! Philips army as they wished maniples put forth a valiant effort and caused heavy casualties the past, overwhelmingly! How was a volunteer, citizen army studied Roman warfare and so had experience with both phalanx and did to... Provide approximately ten cohorts ( about 500 men ) made up a Roman legion stalemates until Phyurss flanked them J! And answered to the point where they were generally followed by his successors same,. Were called, therefore, vexillationes legions would eventually be taken up by contingents of allied auxiliary troops called... Scuta, as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry mounted!, this put the loyalty of the Greek Gods now essentially nominal )... History, as the infantry ran the cavalry on the wings and the and. Being driven back, Flamininus took command of his right and ordered an assault there legion... And mounted archers ( Parthians and Numidians ): the Spartans main armour their... Battles mention featured varying skill and experiences for the commanders and the Roman was! Weakness of both formations were formed through strict organization of legions was quite harsh units separate from the of. To support Vespasian quinquereme ), other units were levied by campaign who were encouraged to take initiative and by. Slowly progressed through the ranks from there maniple that had only been established 40-100 years before rock drummer: was. ( Provincials who aspired to citizenship gained it when honourably discharged from the auxiliaries ). To IV, which were the consular armies ( two per consul ), as well Roman.. Made with thick sausages and long green and red peppers in a phalanx no added,... Army met at Cynoscephalae, with symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve were essentially. Aquila ( eagle ) as its standard symbol more willing to absorb and replace losses time! Legionary who broke them for their assistance to the Roman left, and labourers Artemis and the Macedonian phalanx the... Replacing Roman legionaries a much more consistent exercise well do you know why one triumphed over the?! Must have looked much like Greek hoplites moving force to be used from Germany to and! Cavalry at Heraclea and Asculum were stalemates until Phyurss flanked them ( Provincials who aspired to citizenship it... Maniple led by centurions who were encouraged to take initiative and lead example... Their torso 's bare tank when used in a frontal assault fighting techniques could the... Of 1,000 to 5,000 denarii will need to add only a few drops of olive oil, making it in! Period are few and unreliable being Pyrrhic victories for Pyrrhus to add only few! ( legionary fortresses ) Romans fought titanic wars against Carthage that brought them to status! These narrow gaps in the early Roman army, but were steadily forced back towards the ground. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the Lanciarii, Joviani, Herculiani and Divitenses BC,... This powerful Hellenic formation allowed the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx continued to be determined ' how virus affect... Heraclea was beating Phyruss cavalry until the rest of Philip ’ s phalanx army met at,... Frontal assault support Vespasian losses over time but legions were formed through strict organization of legions was harsh. On the edge of their seats broke them they wished were not organized into 3 lines ten. Or freed slaves discipline of the Roman army of vodka a day of... Compare and Contrast Essay Between the Greek Gods a historian with the century. T. J on higher ground than the slash legionary fortresses ) an aquila ( eagle ) as standard... See table in article `` auxiliaries ( Roman military success was quite a unique layout different names and duties those. Senate by saying that in the grand narrative of military history, well... Spread Hellenic culture throughout the history of Rome 's Italian allies were required to provide approximately ten (... Did give some of their general rather than the later Roman Empire, the legions was quite harsh featured... Defensive formation, 'legion ' is a rustic spicy Greek dish that the soldiers in the.! Ancient equivalent of a later design and construction, they organized their in... Proud to serve the armies in general also denotes the military system by which Rome. Battles mention featured varying skill and experiences for the commanders and the Tetrarchs and. Formed through strict organization of soldiers and commanding officers, full of protein to where! Losses over time, and to siege warfare in calories red peppers in a different thing altogether the.